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A Brief History of Infusion Pumps


Shannon78 Sarah78

One of the greatest technological advances in the medical field has been that of intravenous medicinethe ability to feed, hydrate, medicate and replace blood lost in sick and injured patients directly, through the use of needles. Leading the ability to perform all these functions are infusion pumps. These devices deliver controlled amounts of nutrition, blood and medication directly to a persons circulatory system, where it has the best, most immediate effect on recovery. They can also deliver medicine just under the skin, or directly to the central nervous system, such as when a woman has epidural anesthesia when in labor.

Although the first recorded attempt at intravenous medicine dates to 1492, this branch of medical science gained real momentum in the 17th century. The first working IV infusion device was invented by the famous English architect Christopher Wren in 1658.

Soon afterward, medical scientists conducted ever increasing experiments with administering drugs and fluids intravenously. Better needles were developed, which led to the first successful blood transfusion in 1665. Unfortunately, these early experiments also led to some deaths and as a result the British government, the French Parliament and the Vatican all banned blood transfusionsbans that lasted for a hundred years and effectively halted progress in intravenous medical study.

When the bans were lifted, however, progress resumed at a rapid pace. The key elements of intravenous transfusion which are still observed today were established: a slow infusion process, awareness and prevention of risks from air embolism, and avoiding volume overload. Early in the 19th century, early prototypes of infusion pumps were invented to help control the rate of flow during intravenous procedures.

The 20th century saw huge advances in intravenous medicine including IV pumps. The two World Wars spurred medical advances across the board needles were refined, rubber tubing was replaced by plastic, and vacuum bottles that reduced the risk of air embolism were designed. Vacuum bottles themselves were replaced by plastic bags in the 1950s.

One of the major developments in infusion pumps was the invention in the early 1970s of a wearable infusion pump, by Dean Kamen. Kamens brother was a doctor, and complained that the infusion pumps of the day were too unwieldy. As a result, Dean Kamen invented the first ambulatory pump. It not only gave patients freedom to move when receiving treatment, it meant they could receive their medication on an outpatient basis. This advancement was a godsend to patients, such as diabetics, who need round the clock injections. Kamens pump also automatically administered precise doses at regularly timed intervals, ushering in many advances in infusion pumps and other medical equipment, such as portable dialysis machines.

Medical equipment today includes ambulatory pumps that allow the patient to self-minister doses of medication. Todays infusion pumps also sound alarms if power to the pump runs low, if the line gets kinked, or if the bag or syringe runs low or has pressure applied to it. Some pumps even come with built-in drug libraries and guidelines, and they maintain an electronic record of all alerts. These pumps can link to a hospitals information system, showing a constant stream of information to medical staff.

The technological advances in infusion pumps during the past forty years have transformed the treatment of patients in hospitals, as well as afforded the ability to receive treatment while going about their daily lives. These pumps insure that patients receive the best care.

Sarah Shannon is the author of this article on Infusion Pumps. Find more information about IV Pumps here.

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A Brief History of Infusion Pumps }

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Summary and review of Idebenone and Prevage products anti-aging effectiveness


Donna Ogwal

Chances are if you regularly look at or buy beauty products or have a desire to get rid of wrinkles and other signs of aging, you have came across the lineup of prevage skin care products recently. They are fairly new on the market, but already are some of the best selling, top recommended and most heavily promoted and discussed anti-aging treatments around.

Utilizing the new Idebenone (a proven and powerful antioxidant) ingredient, which has be shown in clinical and medical studies to have tremendous effects on the removal of wrinkles, fine lines, skin discoloration and many other commonly reported aging skin and face troubles, the public has recently picked up a large interest in Idebenone, trying to figure out if it is truly the wondrous anti-aging ingredient they need to see highly influential skin care gains and beauty shifts.

What is Idebenone and what products contain it?

Idebenone has been around now for many years as a pharmaceutical agent, but only recently has it arrived in the mainstream media arena and with a growing public awareness of its effects and benefits. Closely relating another proven anti-wrinkle agent, coenzyme Q10, idebenone is a powerful and efficient antioxidant, working to eliminate and prevent free radical cellular skin damage, to both heal and prevent future causes of wrinkles and various other aging skin care troubles.

It has been researched and proven to be an effective antiaging solution, providing reduction and removal of many of the more commonly associated aging troubles such as wrinkles, and works deeply at a more cellular level to make it a better long term solution then many other of the quick fix products in this market which do nothing more then provide quick but unsustained changes to that which we truly want to be rid of forever.

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Being fairly new on the market as a proven ingredient, not many products are utilizing it in their own formulas yet, with my research only being able to pinpoint usage in Elizabeth Arden and Allergan (formulators of the botox serum) Prevage and Prevage MD anti-aging creams readily available to the public. A quick overview of some of the before and after, impartial and unbiased prevage reviews, and it is quickly obvious that it indeed is an effective ingredient for the war on fine lines aging skin, and I suspect many companies and products to be rolling out in 2007 utilizing this as one of their main ingredients.

Prevage Skin Care – Bringing the idebenone effects to the market

Up until recently, idebenone had little reputation, but following the introduction of prevage, prevage md, and prevage eye cream products, an increasing awareness has been seen due to incredibly powerful customer testimonials and word of mouth advertising passing the word along to fellow friends and consumers. Quicker then any other product in the beauty and anti-aging markets, it is quickly building a name for itself as one of the stronger, pre cosmetic procedure, treatments available to the general public for the removal of symptoms and signs of aging skin. With two separate product and idebenone strengths, a prescription power MD version, as well as a more easily accessible normal prevage by Elizabeth arden version, all signs indicate that prevage skin care products will be among the top selling and highest rated anti-aging solutions in a short period of time as customer word of mouth results continue to pile up and pass themselves along to friends, family, and other people seeing dramatic changes in a users beauty.

Prevage MD is available on prescription, utilizing a 1% idebenone concentration and making it a very active clinical type of therapeutic skin care treatment. To get your hands on this, you will have to have a true and serious need for skin care treatment, making this a more expensive and harder to get a hold idebenone utilizing alternative.

The others in the lineup, prevage by allergen and prevage eye cream however are quite easily available to all, not requiring a visit to a physician, and at a fair price for some of the results noted and proven in both controlled tests as well as noted in customer feedback and usage reviews.

While the MD version contains twice the idebenone concentration of the non-prescription products, a little bit of digging and research into comparisons of the products shows no dramatic difference, with just as many people reporting favorable and very strong results with the normal and over the counter alternatives then that of the MD version. So unless you have some very serious troubles, the normal prevage treatment seems like the more suitable, easier and more cost effective approach for utilizing idebenone’s strong anti aging and skin beauty effects.

What is Idebenone / Prevage appropriate for?

Anyone looking for a mid range priced anti-aging treatment should see a large influence in wrinkle reduction and other anti-aging benefits using Prevage’s idebenone treatments.

Keep in mind however, this is not the cheapest product in the market, and it’s extremely important that if you are considering to buy prevage md or the normal version, that you ask yourself if your situation really requires such a strong treatment, as to make sure your not overspending your hard earned money on a product that wasn’t fully needed for your personal change, and where a cheaper alternative may have been sufficient.

On the other side of the situation, this isn’t quite the miracle cream that some of prevage’s testimonials and marketing pitches make it out to be, and chances are, if you have severely aged or damaged skin, it won’t provide the same dramatic or overnight type of solutions that cosmetical surgeries or procedures would provide you with or require. For this reason, as always, it’s important to visit and consult with a qualified professional to discuss if it is an appropriate solution for your own personal skin type and unique needs.

Should you buy prevage anti-aging treatments?

If you are looking for a quick and easy solution to overnight anti-aging results, you may very well be disappointed with this product. Idebenone doesn’t seem to be a ‘one time for sure type miracle’ like it may be suggested as, but if you have realistic expectations, and want medium to mild anti-aging results, all prevage reviews and customer feedback suggest that it is a truly powerful long term solution for those not quite requiring high end treatment.

If your desires are realistic and you already understand there is no such thing as an elixir of youth, chances are you will be more then satisfied with idebenone as a skin care agent.

Most people report highly positive results on a whole, for the changes and effects that idebenone and prevage products have had on their skin and appearance; and chances are if you the average consumer in the beauty market, you will be quite satisfied as well, as you begin to gradually see compounding and compelling changes to your problems and skin care worries.

Frequently writing about and researching popular beauty market products, Donna Ogwal is a fellow consumer of this industry and hopes to give insight into cost effective solutions.

For more general information on idebenone or customer Prevage skincare reviews

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Summary and review of Idebenone and Prevage products anti-aging effectiveness